The poet in puritan age :- John Milton (1608 to 1674 when he died), most famous for his epic poem La grande " Paradise Lost " in 1667, was an English poet with religious beliefs emphasizing central Puritanical views. Mercy and the children were part of her son Samuel’s family, so these poems also show how much loss could happen in just one nuclear family. Since her arrival in America at age 18, she had given birth to all but one of her eight children, buried numerous relatives and friends, and singly managed a pioneer homestead while her husband traveled on colonial business throughout New England and across the Atlantic. Thank you, thank you, thank you. Anne and Simon, along with Anne's parents, immigrated to America aboard the Arbella as part of the Winthrop Fleet of Puritan emigrants in 1630. I prize thy love more than whole mines of gold. She often conflicted her faith, personal experiences and perceptions. For the two days preceding the judgment Anne Hutchinson had outwitted the magistrates, successfully questioning their logic and command of Scripture, as well as the legal basis for the charges against her. As the poem expresses it, the transition from this world to the next involves not renunciation, not a change even, but an expansion.”. During this period, she found time to write poems and letters, and to keep a diary. The final couplet completes the poem’s theological argument by claiming that it is possible to realize, rather than transcend, duality through achieving a balance between earthly and heavenly love. In a portrait that was painted by her later poems, Bradstreet is described as 'an educated English woman, a kind, loving wife, devoted mother, Empress Consort of Massachusetts, a questing Puritan and a sensitive poet.' . One particular Pilgrim that I have been reflecting on is the Puritan poet, Anne Bradstreet (1612–1672). Poems, articles, podcasts, and blog posts that explore women’s history and women’s rights. Anne Bradstreet was Americans first female poet. Puritans struggled to stay true to their religion due to everyday temptations. Deeply felt human love, she seems to be saying, is a kind of salvation, one so fulfilling here on earth that she hopes it is a glimpse of the hereafter where it will live forever (“That when we live no more, we may live ever.”). Gender is just the state of being male or female. Her testimonial tour de force is, despite her years of teaching and advising women, now the only written record we have of her teaching. This splinter group called the Puritans, a Protestant cult “nonseparating congregationalists,” sought to “purify” religion, and its people. Anne Bradstreet first … The other readings reflect the voice of the Mistress Bradstreet. After The Tenth Muse was published, Bradstreet turned to poetic subjects that seemingly show her fulfilling a Puritan woman’s duty—raising (and burying) children, contemplating God, and loving her parents and husband. If ever wife was happy in a man, My love is such that rivers cannot quench, Anne Bradstreet, an early American poet, takes, From the Puritan writers of the 17th century to the post-Civil War period of American Realism and Naturalism, American culture and writing has evolved dramatically. Puritanism required that he rest his whole hope in Christ but taught him that Christ would utterly reject him unless before he was born God had foreordained his salvation. She often conflicted her faith, personal experiences and perceptions. Nor ought but love from thee give recompense. By recalling the ancient chthonic mysteries of blood and birth, by reconnecting daughters with their mothers, by drawing parallels between women today and their historical counterparts, and by envisioning the women of the future who will emerge from the feminist struggle, her poetry celebrates women's strength and possibilities. One answer can be found in Bradstreet’s “To My Dear and Loving Husband.” From our contemporary perspective, it reads like a traditional Elizabethan love sonnet (though it’s composed of 12 lines instead of 14). Her nimble weaving of religious and monetary language implies that just as there is no greater reward for humanity than receiving Christ’s love, there is no greater reward for her (“Nor ought but love from thee give recompense”) than receiving her husband’s love. Anne Bradstreet became a cultural icon for speaking out. . Instead of painstakingly estimating whether she is worthy to receive grace, Bradstreet estimates her power to reciprocate love. Puritans have shaped our culture immensely with their art that represents their beliefs so clearly. And water (that “rivers that cannot quench”) was a common figure of speech for salvation, or union with Christ. Prefiguring the Salem witch trials, the magistrates based their decision on the view that such bold talk must be the work of the Devil. Seventeenth-century readers, however, familiar with Puritan theology and the tricks, tropes, and conceits of metaphysical poetry could read her poem as a rhetorical argument intended to persuade them of her position on the schism that had threatened to tear apart the colony at Hutchinson’s trial. She turns to heaven, something greater than herself, for his reward: Thy love is such I can no way repay; Puritanism has been a strong influence on American Literature and it still is to this day. Nonetheless, after two days of Hutchinson’s parrying, no charge would stick. Counted among them were many men who were political opponents of the current governor, John Winthrop, the lead prosecutor. She was a Puritan woman who wrote about her life and struggles between religion and society. Handbook and Style Guide Her marriage fulfilled the Puritan ideal of a loving, respectful partnership, and she embraced the traditional feminine role of motherhood. Puritans engaged in a continual and exacting introspection in which all personal and national events were interpreted as signs of their readiness to receive grace. Anne Bradstreet was the first woman to be recognized as an accomplished New World Poet. In “To My Dear and Loving Husband,” written many years later, God doesn’t make an explicit appearance. Bradstreet’s poem speaks obliquely to the competing beliefs on how to conduct one’s life on earth given the contradictory nature of Puritanism: even though God had predetermined, or elected, those who would attain salvation, one still had to conduct one’s life on earth so as to prepare to receive grace, or salvation, in the hereafter. In this poem, Bradstreet not only conveys personal experience, but she conveys social and religious meanings that are important to her. Emily Warn was born in San Francisco and grew up in California and Detroit. Having established the value of her love through the power to reason in the first quatrain, she offers proof that its value is beyond compare in the second quatrain through the use of monetary metaphors and scriptural imagery: I prize thy love more than whole mines of gold, The extent to which individual Puritans pinned their hopes on being counted among the elect is impossible to underestimate. With that in hand, she begins to shape her monetary metaphor into a metaphysical conceit, which she uses to resolve the duality, or value, of earthly and heavenly love, husband and wife, and God and man. Yet within the context of being dutiful and celebrating ordinary joys, these more domestic poems display her capacity to argue theology and invent lasting art. I hope we'll see more of the wise argument, frank interest in meaning, and bright thought in Warn's essay. Collected here are four poems Puritan housewife Anne Bradstreet wrote in 1665 and 1669, mourning the deaths of four grandchildren and her daughter-in-law Mercy. Believing such feelings were sinful outside of marriage, she prayed unremittingly to be rid of her carnal lust. The heavens reward thee manifold, I pray. Robert Richardson, "The Puritan Poetry of Anne Bradstreet," Texas Studies in Literature and Language, 9 (1967): 317-331.
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