# graphite to diamond endothermic or exothermic

It only takes a minute to sign up. Table $$\PageIndex{1}$$ lists the approximate bond energies of various covalent bonds. In reaction A, the test tube becomes very warm as the reaction occurs. Energy Relations in Chemistry: Thermochemistry, It is often possible to calculate DH for a reaction from listed DH values of other reactions (i.e. The bond energy of hydrogen, iodine and hydrogen iodide are 218, 107kJ and 299kJ respectively. A line between the diamond and graphite phases represents a phase boundary, and tell us precisely what temperature and pressure are required for these two phases to be in equilibrium. In this reaction, 2 H–H bonds and 1 O=O bonds are broken, while 4 O–H bonds (two for each H2O) are formed. Which reaction is endothermic and which is exothermic? Thus, we now have two equations with known enthalpies of reaction: the first describes the combustion of carbon and oxygen to produce CO2 and the second describes how CO2 can be decomposed to produce carbon monoxide (and oxygen). Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. They don't necessarily tell you whether a different bonding structure is more thermodynamically stable. Recall that 1 mol = 6.022 x 1023 C–H bonds, Using the data in Table 7.4.1, calculate the energy of one C=C bond (as opposed to 1 mol of C=C bonds). Consider the previous example of the combustion of methane to produce gaseous H2O and then the condensation of the gaseous H2O to the liquid state. To learn more, see our tips on writing great answers. $2H_2(g)+O_2(g) \rightarrow 2H_2O(g)\ \: \: \: \: \: \Delta H = -111 \: \text{kcal}$. Endothermic and exothermic reactions can be thought of as having energy as either a reactant of the reaction or a product. This suggests that graphite should be more stable than diamond. Is the reaction endothermic or exothermic? The thermodynamic stability of different carbon structures depends on subtle tradeoffs among several factors in the bonding of the various solids (allotropes) than can be formed with different bonding arrangements. We can combine these together to describe the production of carbon monoxide from the combustion of carbon and oxygen: The overall reaction, going from left-hand side reactant(s) to the right-hand side product(s) would be: We can algebraically subtract the one-half O2 from both sides to yield the following equation with the associated overall enthalpy: Another way to look at the method of combining reactions would be as follows: canceling out identical compounds from the left and right hand sides of this reaction gives, Carbon occurs in two forms: graphite and diamond. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! For an endothermic chemical reaction to proceed, the reactants must absorb energy from their environment to be converted to products. The reaction we want to calculate is: $C(diamond) \rightarrow C(graphite)$. Given the following enthalpies of reaction for 298 K and 1 bar, C(Graphite) + O2(g) = CO2(g) ΔrH°1,298 = -393.5 kJ mol-1 C(Diamond) + O2(g) = CO2(g) ΔrH°1,298 = -395.4 kJ mol-1 a) Determine the enthalpy of reaction of graphite going to diamond. Hence, we call diamond a metastable phase under STP. The gravitational attraction of Earth exerts a force on the basketball, and given the chance, the basketball will move down. rev 2020.11.24.38066, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top, Chemistry Stack Exchange works best with JavaScript enabled, Start here for a quick overview of the site, Detailed answers to any questions you might have, Discuss the workings and policies of this site, Learn more about Stack Overflow the company, Learn more about hiring developers or posting ads with us, MAINTENANCE WARNING: Possible downtime early morning Dec 2/4/9 UTC (8:30PM…, “Question closed” notifications experiment results and graduation. When a chemical reaction occurs, the atoms in the reactants rearrange their chemical bonds to make products. Personally, I find this video very compelling. Chemistry Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for scientists, academics, teachers, and students in the field of chemistry. Using the bond energies given in the chart above, find the enthalpy change for the thermal decomposition of water: Is the reaction written above exothermic or endothermic? Therefore, diamond wants to convert into graphite. In an exothermic reaction, the bonds in the product have higher bond energy (stronger bonds) than the reactants. Why not? Estimate the enthalpy of hydrogen iodide formation. Is this reaction endothermic or exothermic? Graphite: Thermal and electrical conductivity. Endothermic reactions require energy, so energy is a reactant. When going from one line to another, the atoms must balance. This is an exothermic process under these conditions. atomic densities: $1.14 \times 10^{23}$ cm$^{-3}$ for graphite; $1.77 \times 10^{23}$ cm$^{-3}$ for diamond; This suggests that higher pressure would favor the formation of diamond. $\ce{CH_4} \left( g \right) + 2 \ce{O_2} \left( g \right) \rightarrow \ce{CO_2} \left( g \right) + 2 \ce{H_2O} \left( l \right) \: \: \: \: \: \Delta H = -890.4 \: \text{kJ}$. 1. A chemical reaction is exothermic if heat is released by the system into the surroundings. What is the connection between energy and chemical bonds? Well, for starters, in all of our experience, the basketball has always moved to a lower position when given the opportunity. 1. On the abscissa is temperature in units of Kelvin and on the ordinate is the pressure given in units of Gigapascals. By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie Policy, Privacy Policy, and our Terms of Service. A general statement, based on countless observations over centuries of study, is that all objects tend to move spontaneously to a position of minimum energy unless acted on by some other force or object. conversion of graphite to diamond. a. Step 3- Identify the bond energies of these bonds from Table $$\PageIndex{1}$$: Step 4- Set up the table (see below) and apply the formula for enthalpy change. 6. a. exothermic . "Burning paper" is exothermic because burning (also known as combustion) releases heat. There is no easy way to tell which is the most thermodynamically stable other than by measurement or some very high-powered calculations about the quantum mechanics of the bonding. What is a rigorous definition of gas volume, and how is the Van der Waals equation derived? The Learning Objectives of this Module are to: What happens when you take a basketball, place it halfway up a playground slide, and then let it go?